Early detection of cancer can be done through blood tests. Because, with blood tests, patients will know of tumor markers in the body. These tumor markers are usually in the form of the protein formed by cancer cells.
There are several kinds of tumor markers. Some are very specific so that it can help detect cancers quickly. Below them,
Alpha Fetoproteiin (AFP)
AFP levels in the body is very useful to detect liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma. Normal levels of AFP in the body are usually less than 20 ng / mL. However, patients with liver cancer, AFP levels are usually increased more than 500 ng / mL. AFP levels will increase as growing tumors.
AFP levels also increased in patients with acute and chronic hepatitis, but not until 100 ng / mL. Similarly, in certain testicular cancers (embryonal cell types and endodermal sinus), certain types of ovarian cancer, testicular cancer is also called yolk sac tumor or mixed germ cell cancer.
B2M levels will increase in multiple myeloma, chronic Lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and some lymphomas. B2M normal levels in the body is less than 2.5 ug / mL. Patients with high B2M levels indicate poor prognosis.
Content of Ca 15-3 in the body is usually used to monitor the existence of breast cancer cells. Normal levels are usually less than 25 U / mL, but there are also women who have healthy levels of Ca 15-3 to 100 U / mL.
Increased blood levels of Ca 15-3 in the body is found in less than 10 percent of breast cancer patients with early stage, and about 70 percent in patients with advanced stage. Ca 15-3 levels usually decrease over the success of therapy.
The standard tumor markers are used to monitor the growth of epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Normal levels are usually less than 30-35 U / mL. While over 90 percent of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have advanced stage Ca 125 levels higher.
A new tumor markers that are still in the research for ovarian tumors, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract.
Although initially developed to detect colorectal cancer, but it is more sensitive to pancreatic cancer. Normal levels of less than 37 U / mL. High levels indicate the early diagnosis of advanced-stage cancer.
Calcitonin is a hormone produced by certain cells (parafollicular C Cells) in the thyroid gland that normally help the regulation of blood calcium levels. Cancer Cells in C Parafollicular called Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) causes increased levels of the hormone calcitonin in the blood.
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)
Is a tumor marker for prostate cancer. PSA levels are not in patients with cancer who had less than 4 ng / mL, and those who indicated having cancer PSA levels of more than 10 ng / mL. Whereas patients with PSA levels between 4-10 ng / mL considered a gray area so that the doctor will do further detection by biopsy to confirm the existence of cancer cells in the body